Friday, March 13, 2020
Photosynthesis Study Guide - Key Concepts Learn about photosynthesis step-by-step with this quick study guide. Start with the basics: Quick Review of the Key Concepts of Photosynthesis In plants, photosynthesis is used to convert light energy from sunlight into chemical energy (glucose). Carbon dioxide, water, and light are used to make glucose and oxygen.Photosynthesis is not a single chemical reaction, but rather a set of chemical reactions. The overall reaction is:6CO2 6H2O light Ã¢â â C6H12O6 6O2The reactions of photosynthesis can be categorized as light-dependent reactions and dark reactions.Chlorophyll is a key molecule for photosynthesis, though other cartenoid pigments also participate. There are four (4) types of chlorophyll: a, b, c, and d. Although we normally think of plants as having chlorophyll and performing photosynthesis, many microorganisms use this molecule, including some prokaryotic cells. In plants, chlorophyll is found in a special structure, which is called a chloroplast.The reactions for photosynthesis take place in different areas of the chloroplast. The chloroplast has three membranes (inner, outer, thylakoid) and is divided into th ree compartments (stroma, thylakoid space, inter-membrane space). Dark reactions occur in the stroma. Light reactions occur the thylakoid membranes. There is more than one form of photosynthesis. In addition, other organisms convert energy into food using non-photosynthetic reactions (e.g. lithotroph and methanogen bacteria)Products of Photosynthesis Steps of Photosynthesis Here is a summary of the stepsÃ used by plants and other organisms to use solar energy to make chemical energy: In plants, photosynthesis usually occurs in the leaves. This is where plants can get the raw materials for photosynthesis all in one convenient location. Carbon dioxide and oxygen enter/exit the leaves through pores called stomata. Water is delivered to the leaves from the roots through a vascular system. The chlorophyllÃ in the chloroplasts inside leaf cellsÃ absorbs sunlight.The process of photosynthesisÃ is divided into two main parts: light dependent reactions and light independent or dark reactions. The light dependent reaction happens whenÃ solar energyÃ is captured to make a molecule called ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The dark reaction happens when the ATP is used to make glucose (the Calvin Cycle).Chlorophyll and other carotenoids form what are called antenna complexes. Antenna complexes transfer light energy to one of two types of photochemical reaction centers: P700, which is part of Photosystem I, or P680, which is part of Photosystem II. The photochemical reac tion centers are located on the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. Excited electrons are transferred to electron acceptors, leaving the reaction center in an oxidized state. The light-independent reactions produce carbohydrates by using ATP and NADPH that was formed from the light-dependent reactions. Photosynthesis Light Reactions Not all wavelengths of light are absorbed during photosynthesis. Green, the color of most plants, is actually the color that is reflected. The light that is absorbed splits water into hydrogen and oxygen: H2O light energy Ã¢â â Ã ½ O2Ã 2HÃ 2 electrons Excited electrons from Photosystem I can use an electron transport chain to reduce oxidized P700. This sets up a proton gradient, which can generate ATP. The end result of this looping electron flow, called cyclic phosphorylation, is the generation of ATP and P700.Excited electrons from Photosystem I could flow down a different electron transport chain to produce NADPH, which is used to synthesize carbohydratyes. This is a noncyclic pathway in which P700Ã is reduced by an exicted electron from Photosystem II.An excited electron from Photosystem II flows down an electron transport chain from excited P680Ã to the oxidized form of P700, creating a proton gradient between the stroma and thylakoids that generates ATP. The net result of this reaction is called noncyclic photophosphorylation.Water contributes the electron that is needed to regenerate the reduced P680. The reduction of each molecule of NADPÃ to NADPH usesÃ two electronsÃ and requiresÃ four photons.Ã Two molecul esÃ of ATP are formed. Photosynthesis Dark Reactions Dark reactions dont require light, but they arent inhibited by it, either. For most plants, the dark reactions take place during daytime. The dark reaction occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast. This reaction is called carbon fixation or theÃ Calvin cycle. In this reaction, carbon dioxide is converted to sugar using ATP and NADPH. Carbon dioxide is combined with a 5-carbon sugar to form a 6-carbon sugar. The 6-carbon sugar is broken into twoÃ sugar molecules, glucose and fructose, which can be used to make sucrose. The reaction requires 72 photons of light. The efficiency of photosynthesis is limited by environmental factors, including light, water, and carbon dioxide. In hot or dry weather, plants may close their stomata to conserve water. When the stomata are closed, the plants may start photorespiration. Plants called C4Ã plants maintain high levels of carbon dioxide inside cells that make glucose, to help avoid photorespiration. C4Ã plants produce carbohydrates more efficiently than normal C3Ã plants, provided the carbon dioxide is limiting and sufficient light is available to support the reaction. In moderate temperatures, too much of an energy burden is placed on the plants to make the C4Ã strategy worthwhile (named 3 and 4 because of the number of carbons in the intermediate reaction). C4Ã plants thrive in hot, dry climates.Study Questions Here are some questions you can ask yourself, to help you determine if you really understand the basics of how photosynthesis works. Define photosynthesis.What materials are required for photosynthesis? What is produced?Write theÃ overall reactionÃ for photosynthesis.Describe what happens during the cyclic phosphorylation of photosystem I. How does the transfer of electrons lead to the synthesis of ATP?Describe the reactions of carbon fixation or theÃ Calvin cycle. What enzyme catalyzes the reaction? What are the products of the reaction? Do you feel ready to test yourself? Take theÃ photosynthesis quiz!
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Pathophysiology of Malabsorption Syndrome (at the cellullar, tissue and organ level) - Research Paper Example And lastly the transport system of these necessary elements can be affected because of which these nutrients would not be going inside. At the cellular level the malabsorption syndrome can occur due to destruction of cells of pancreas or liver which would produce the necessary juices for the digestion of nutrients. The primary mucosal cell abnormalities can cause deficiency in the transport system of the nutrients. Bacteria can overgrow in these mucosal cells which can cause deficiency of the necessary nutrients. Individuals with Malabsorption syndrome would commonly show signs of diarrhoea, flatus and pain in abdomen. This would be generally seen in individuals who have excessive secretion of intestinal juices. Similarly the hematopoetic system of that individual would also be affected because of the lack of nutrients. Lack of red blood cells and bleeding can occur at such instances. The endocrine system can also be affected of the individual through lack of the nutrients required for hormones. Calcium levels can be affected because of lack of Vitamin D and this can further lead to hyperparathyroidism. Individuals with Malabsorption syndromes show problems with their epidermis and skin because of lack of nutrients required for the development of skin. Nervous system is also affected in this syndrome such as in the deficiency of Vitamin A and B12. The treatment for malabsorption Syndrome depends on the exact cause of the disease. That is if the intraluminal digestion is affected then the exact cause of that defect should be discovered first. If a nutrient is deficient in the body it would be given orally or intravenously to the patient. Enzyme deficiencies can be tackled with treatment from oral or injected enzymes. Similarly the growth of bacteria in the cells can also be stopped by giving antibiotics. Some examples of Malabsorption syndrome are pancreatitis,
Monday, February 10, 2020
Entrepreneur - Essay Example Similar examples exist in the society and include interests in political appointment to the federal government (Gimpel 28). The entrepreneurial experience of Theodore Judah offers many lessons that are still relevant today. TheodoreÃ¢â¬â¢s experience explains the role of hardwork and determination in entrepreneurial success, qualities that have been coined to define successful entrepreneurs. TheodoreÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to seeks support from politicians and business men and the success that he achieved defines his hardwork while his continuous efforts, despite discouraging encounter, in seeking support for the railroad project explains his determination as well as perseverance that can help todayÃ¢â¬â¢s entrepreneurs to overcome challenges and succeed in their entrepreneurial ventures (Gimpel 29- 34). Your essay on Gustavus Swift is explorative and informative. I however believe that it is not strong in captivating the audience and also in attracting the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Including a thesis statement in the introductory paragraph and using subheadings for major points would have improved the essayÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness. The audience however has to strain to grasp information. Your essay on Lewis Tappan identifies professionalism in writing. Organizing the work into subsections and using headings helps the audience to understand a essayÃ¢â¬â¢s main points and helps in attracting attention into the essay. The presentation is also simple and identifies critical information such as the period in which Tappan lives, his life in business, and his business
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Baisakhi Festival Is a Seasonal Festival Essay The Baisakhi festival is a seasonal festival. It is celebrated all over the Punjab and Haryana by all classes of people. Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs all take part in this celebration. It falls in he first day of baisakh. It falls every year in the 13th of April. On this day people put on new clothes. They prepare Halawa and several tasty things at home. Baisakhi Fair A fair is held everywhere in connection with the Baisakhi festival. The site of the fair is a place which is religiously famous. Generally the fair is held by the side of a river. The religious body is in charge of the fair. A day before the fair there seen a regular bazaar. There are stalls of sweet, toys fruits on either side of it. On Baisakhi day there is great rush in the fair. There is no place in the fair without visitors. In the fair the crowd is so great that you cannot meet with it even in the over crowded cities. You cannot elbow your way through it easily. Description On one side of the bazaar merry-go-rounds attract the people. They whirl in the air with children and boys of all ages sitting them. The boys enjoy their rides. Near them are the rope dancers. They do their feats on the rope. The moneys men make their monkeys show the same feats as were shown by their forefathers about a hundred years ago. Country Dance On the other side of the bazaar crowd of people can be seen standing on a circle. In the middle there is a group of villagers. They are mostly farmers. They are giving a show of their country dance with the beating of drum. Each one of these villagers has a stick in his hand. These sticks are raised in the air as the dancers lift both hands and raise their legs. They cry,. Gone is Baisakhi, Gone in Baisakhi. The sight is worth seeing. The excitement and enthusiasm of the dancers are very great. So many of onlookers forget there sense of shyness and join the dancers. The dance is wild indeed. Shamianas of Religious Parties Side by side with these means of amusement arrangement are made for the elderly people who are serious and religious minded. Hindus, Arya Samajist and Sikhs have out up their Shamianasunder which they are giving lecture on religion and are signing hymns. The number of the people who are listening to them is small. It is much smaller as compared with huge crowd gathered around the dancers to enjoy the dance. Those people who gather under the Shamianas do not care for the worldly attachments. They go on with their duty. Conclusion By the time evening drawn near, people get tired. They are glad to return home with sweets, toys and fruits for their children for the next day.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Dostoevsky: Why is there evil? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This story is about two brothers, Ivan and Alyosha. Alyosha is a monk and Ivan is his brother who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe or accept God. Ivan believes that God cannot exist because there is evil. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to try and be convinced otherwise by his brother. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ivan accepts and believes in God and says that there has to be evil. Evil has to be permitted because without it men would never know the difference between good and evil. This is important because it makes us aware of what could happen in the afterlife. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã We should think about if the fact of evil counts against the existence of God. I think that evil and good must be present because the people that are evil and have fun at others expenses will pay after they die, and the people who are good and get persecuted will have a rewarding afterlife. B.C. Johnson: Why doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t God intervene to prevent evil. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Johnson, an atheist, writes about how there cannot be a God because of all the evil that happens. He talks about how innocent babies are killed in fires, and how Hitler was allowed to live. He also says if God exists he would have to be evil. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This story was written to show us that there couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a God because of the mass amounts of evil that take place. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a very one sided argument because he lists all of the bad things and none of the good things in the world. It was also written to see his beliefs in religion or non-beliefs because he is an atheist. He is using all of the evil things to support his atheism. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã We should think about the fact that no good things were brought up such as love, friendship, and family. God has to allow evil in the world because if he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t, we would never know the difference between good and evil. Hick: There is a reason why God allows Evil. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hick writes about how evil has been around forever with the climax being when Jesus was crucified. He asks why an all-powerful God would allow this and says itÃ¢â¬â¢s because of the free will given to us. Everything bad happens because this world is not perfect and this is where Ã¢â¬Å"soul-makingÃ¢â¬ begins. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This was written to show us that God allows evil because he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want us to be in a utopia because we will never build our souls.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Introduction In the assessment I am going to evaluate my performance in swimming, I will be analysing my strengths and weakness and how they contribute to my performance and how in the future I can improve the development of my swimming. Strengths My main strengths in swimming is front crawl, I am good at this stroke as I use the correct muscles and joints effectively allowing me to generate lots of power, which enables me to glide through the water easily. I use my deltoid and trapezius which are located at the top of my back to muscularly pull my body through the water. To start the front crawl I must dive into the water using my hamstrings and quadriceps, I must use these muscles in a short burst to generate lots of power. I also have long arms which means that I have a long arm stroke, this allows me to have less arm strokes per length, and this means that I have more energy in the last fifty metres of a sprint. In the dive I create a streamline position so that I can make a clean entry into the water, this will limit the splash at the point of entry into the water allowing me to swim a faster length. Whilst I wait to dive of the board I must make a specific pose with body so that I can enter the water quickly. The first position should be made before a signal has been called out, I should have my fingertips touching the tip of the board, one heel should be in contact with the board and the other foot should be placed at the back of the board. When a signal has been called to signify the start of the race I should balance my body weight towards the front of the board. I believe that my reaction time to the signal is also one of my strengths as I react very quickly. I excelled in the in the short distance sprints as I generated lots of power from my kicks. When kicking the movement involves all the muscles in my lower body for example, hamstrings, quadriceps, gluteus maximus and calves. The movement begins with the gluteus maximus which the powers the motion all the way down to the legs to the feet. My kicking is efficient as I keep them parallel to each other when alternatively kicking them up and down- known as the flutter kick. I also make the kicks short and quick which generates the mos t power making me quicker in the water. Weaknesses My main weaknesses in swimming is my backstroke. I struggle with this stroke as I tend to have a poor sense of balance, my hips are not pushed up which also causes my legs to drop below the rest of my body. This disallows my legs to kick as fast as they are deeper under the water. I am not streamlined, this slows me down further as I am creating more surface area. Furthermore, in backstroke my fingers are spread out allowing water to pass through, this makes my stroke inefficient. I could stop this by keeping my fingers closer together which would then allow me to pull the water past me making my stroke more efficient. Another weakness of mine is tumble turns. When performing backstroke tumble turns I tumble slightly too far away from the wall this is because I come to close to the wall before I tumble. When I am far away from the wall I generate less power when pushing off the wall causing my head to be raised and my back not horizontal therefore I push off upwards. This stops me fr om staying under the water gliding meaning that I have more strokes making my time much slower. I am also very weak at breast stroke as I struggle with the complexity of the leg movement. When performing the stroke I use the correct technique but I do not push hard enough when kicking out. When sprinting in breaststroke my leg technique is poor as my hips dip below the surface of the water. To compensate for the lack of power in my leg movement I then have to push harder with my arms (unbalanced stroke) meaning that my timing is inconsistent. When coming up to breathe between each arm stroke my head can sometimes face toward the end of the pool making me more resistance in the water, however when taking a breath my head should be facing to decrease the resistance between my head and the water.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Shaan Sheth - Word Count (1,460) Mr. Thomas Wiegman English 1 Honors 14 December 2015 The Ramifications of Revenge Ã¢â¬Å"While seeking revenge, dig two graves - one for yourself.Ã¢â¬ Douglas HortonÃ¢â¬â¢s statement about revenge accurately portrays how serious the effect of taking revenge can be. Only something as powerful as the desire for revenge can influence a storyÃ¢â¬â¢s plot and the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ actions as much as it does in the novel Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. Philip Pirrip Gargery or Pip, the central character in the story, is just a common blacksmithÃ¢â¬â¢s son, but when he is introduced to new people and new things, his life drastically changes. He falls in love with a beautiful young lady, finds out a convict is his patron, and treats those who love him most with the utmost disrespect. Also, throughout the story many charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ actions and thoughts are driven by their desire for vengeance. 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